Charlie Adam, Graham Dorrans, Alan Hutton, David Marshall, Russell Martin and Lee Wallace have all pulled out of Friday's friendly away to Cyprus.
Blackpool left-back Stephen Crainey and Cardiff City winger Craig Conway have also been added to the squad.
Craig Levein's side take on the Cypriots in Larnaca.
The match was arranged to coincide with the Euro 2012 play-offs, for which Scotland failed to qualify.
It is MacKenzie's first call-up to the national squad at any level, the 26-year-old having signed for League One outfit MK Dons from Dundee in July 2010.
Former Scotland Under-21 international Samson, 27, has yet to win a full honour.
Adam, Hutton and Martin all completed 90 minutes for their respective Premier League clubs on Saturday while Dorrans was subbed late in West Brom's defeat away to Arsenal.
The Scottish Football Association indicated that Adam and Hutton are suffering with knee complaints, while Martin and Dorrans have been listed with ankle injuries.
Marshall is suffering with an illness that prevented the goalkeeper playing for Cardiff against Crystal Palace, while Wallace's omission was likely after he was replaced in the first half of Rangers' 3-1 success over Dundee United on Saturday.
Wallace's injury paved the way for the return of Crainey, who he had replaced only last month when the Blackpool defender was forced out of the squad to play Liechtenstein and Spain with injury.